Additive manufacturing and 3D printing methods based on the extrusion of material have become very popular in recent years. There are many methods of printing ceramics, but the direct extrusion method gives the largest range of sizes of printed objects and enables scaling of processes also in large-scale applications. Additionally, the application of this method to ceramic materials is of particular importance due to its low cost, ease of use, and high material utilization. The paper presents the most important literature reports on ceramics printed by direct extrusion. The review includes articles written in English and published between 2017 and 2022. The aim of this literature review was to present the main groups of ceramic materials produced by extrusion-based 3D printing.